Explain why animals are used in research. Are there any limitations to the application of animal data to human physiology? Could these limitations be addressed using cell or tissue culture, or computer simulations?
You are designing a study to assess the effects of a new drug treatment for hypertension. In your study of this drug’s efficacy in treating hypertension, your subjects are white males, ages 40 to 60 years. Is your study applicable to all people? Explain
Sally does not understand the differences between ions, isotopes, and free radicals. Assuming she has learned and understood some basic chemistry, what is the likely source of her confusion? Review the definitions of these terms, then make a table or flow chart to help her sort this out.
What is the induced-fit model? List the types of bonds involved and classify them as strong or weak.
Your roommate is not a science major but is interested in science and asks you to verify a rumor he has heard: it is theoretically possible for two people to walk through each other without causing harm. Confirm or refute what he has heard, and explain.
Describe the anatomical and fluid compartments of the body. How do the lumens of hollow organs fit into these classifications? Which fluid-containing cavities are considered to be internal and which are external? Of those that are external, why are they external (give examples)? You may wish to design a flow chart to help answer this.
Explain how it is possible for an enzyme to catalyze a chemical reaction in two different directions.
Cancer is not one disease but a group of related diseases, caused by abnormal genes, environmental factors, and/or viral infections. Describe the basic common characteristics of cancers, including the role of anchoring junctions and proteases. What is a tumor? What is metastasis? Is cancer usually considered to be contagious? Explain.
Some diseases, such as phenylketonuria, classical hemophilia, cystic fibrosis, and muscular dystrophy are a result of enzyme malfunction. Each of these diseases is inherited. Explain how there might be a relationship among these observations.
For the following strand of DNA, use the table below to provide: bases for the complementary mRNA and bases for the corresponding tRNA molecules and the associated amino acids. What do you notice about the relationship between the DNA and the anticodons? What do you notice about the genetic code for proline in the peptide? How would the loss of the first G or switching that G to a T affect the structure and function of this protein?
DNA: GGC CTA CAA GCC GGA ACA GTT ACC GCG TAA CGA