Penn Foster Psychology Essay

Choose one of the topics and submit a well-written essay

based on that topic. Your essay should be 750 to 1,000

words long. Remember: If you use the exact words of your

textbook’s authors, you must use quotation marks and cite

the information properly

Your essay assignment must include

1. A cover sheet

2. The body of your paper (750–1,000 words)

3. A reference page, if needed

The Cover Sheet

The first page of your paper will be the cover sheet. Provide

the following information:

The title of your chosen topic

Your name and student ID

Current date (e.g, November 1, 2013)

Essentials of Psychology SSC130

Essay 25072400

 

Developing the Body of Your Paper

As stated earlier, you are to choose one of the assigned topics

and create a thoughtful, well-written essay of 750 to

1,000 words based solely from the sources provided (i.e.,

your textbook). If you use the exact words of the textbook’s

authors, you are required to use quotation marks and provide

proper citations both in the text and on a properly

formatted reference page

 

Format your paper using a standard font, such as Times New

Roman, 12 point, double-spaced. Set the margins at a standard

1 inch on all sides. Since you’ve given your information

on the cover sheet, no header is necessary. The standard

style format for citations is American Psychological

Association (APA)

 

Conditioning

Begin by reviewing Chapter 5 beginning on page 162.

Chapter 5 discusses classical conditioning and the experiments

of Ivan Pavlov, operant conditioning, and B. F.

Skinner’s contributions to the field in particular with his

discussion on rewards and punishment. Chapter 5 also

discusses cognitive approaches to learning, which include

latent learning and observational learning based on

Bandura’s experiments.

Then, write your essay about one of the following topics:

1. Choose one of these conditioning/learning styles and

discuss how it may be applied to child rearing. In essay

format, create a plan to help get a young child to clean

his/her room.

2. Conditioning still plays a role in punishment, and the

text discusses the pros and cons of punishment and

why reinforcement “beats” punishment. Explain the

theory behind this phenomenon and give an example of

it by how you used it when training an animal.

Memory

Begin by reviewing Chapter 6 beginning on page 200.

Chapter 6 discusses memory, how the brain processes information,

and the process involved in forgetting information. In

addition, the chapter discusses how we as humans think,

reason, and solve problems and the role our brains play in

developing language.

Then, write your essay about one of the following topics:

1. Discuss the process of memory. In particular, discuss

the different types of memory and relate each one to a

personal experience.

2. Discuss the different theories on language acquisition.

As our country becomes more multicultural, how can

these theories aid our children and/or you in learning a

second and perhaps a third language?

Motivation and Emotion

Begin by reviewing Chapter 7, which begins on page 243.

Chapter 7 states that humans are born to be motivated to

satisfy our needs, discusses why some of us seek out more

sensation and thrills more than others, explains why emotions

and the need for power rule some of us, and ends with

a discussion of the cultural differences on how we as humans

express emotions.

Then, write your essay about one of the following topics:

1. According to Maslow, our motivation progresses up a

pyramid. Discuss his theory and give your opinion on

whether or not you agree with it. Give concrete examples

(in relation to the hierarchy) to support your opinion.

2. The text discusses three models of emotions. Choose one

of those models and describe what you do in the event of

a crisis. Provide specific examples.

 

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Research In Psychology Exam 5

Question 1 of 40 2.5 Points

In low-constraint studies:

 

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A. analysis is only possible if we use complex statistical software.

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B. coding of data is generally necessary before analysis.

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C. direct analysis can always be undertaken.

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D. there is often no data to analyze.

Question 2 of 40 2.5 Points

A survey is most useful in gathering data on the:

 

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A. knowledge base of participants.

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B. attitudes of participants.

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C. causes of participants’ behavior.

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D. Both A and B

Question 3 of 40 2.5 Points

If an obtained correlation was 0.50, the coefficient of determination would be:

 

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A. 0.50.

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B. 0.25.

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C. -0.50.

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D. 0.00.

Question 4 of 40 2.5 Points

A strong relationship between two variables:

 

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A. can imply causality in differential research.

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B. cannot imply causality in differential research.

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C. can imply causality in differential research but not in correlational research.

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D. is entirely meaningless.

Question 5 of 40 2.5 Points

Carrying out a survey by interviewing the first 100 people coming out of a movie theater would be an example of:

 

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A. a status survey.

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B. nonprobability sampling.

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C. probability sampling.

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D. simple random sampling.

Question 6 of 40 2.5 Points

Milfont (2009) found that desirable responding did not impact the self-reporting of environmental attitudes and behavior. What methodological issues might decrease the credibility of this claim?

 

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A. Ecological behavior was self-reported instead of measuring actual behavior.

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B. The sample used was made up only self-reported environmentalists.

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C. Environmental attitudes were not related to environmental behavior in this study.

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D. None of the above was true of the study.

Question 7 of 40 2.5 Points

A researcher wants to study bonding behavior in chimpanzees. Unfortunately, the researcher has no real knowledge about chimpanzees, and there is no information on bonding in the literature. Which of the following would be the most appropriate way to begin to study the topic?

 

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A. Archival research

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B. Ex post facto methodology

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C. Experimental research

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D. Naturalistic observation

Question 8 of 40 2.5 Points

What is the reason for this statement: “In differential research, we are actually studying relationships between variables”?

 

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A. Correlation coefficients are calculated.

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B. The strength of the relationship between dependent variables is measured.

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C. Differential research involves only measuring variables and not manipulating them.

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D. Contingent relationships are carefully measured.

Question 9 of 40 2.5 Points

The problem of participants’ contrived consistency on self-report measures can be reduced by:

 

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A. including fewer items.

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B. using appropriate statistical controls.

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C. making the participant aware of what the researcher is interested in.

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D. adding filler items.

Question 10 of 40 2.5 Points

What is the primary ethical concern in low-constraint research?

 

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A. Confidentiality

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B. Researcher’s access to sensitive information

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C. Informed consent

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D. All of the above

Question 11 of 40 2.5 Points

Archival research is an example of:

 

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A. single-subject designs.

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B. an ANOVA.

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C. low-constraint field research.

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D. high-constraint laboratory research.

Question 12 of 40 2.5 Points

Rosenhan investigated the experiences of psychiatric patients in mental hospitals by:

 

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A. asking patients to describe their experiences.

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B. unobtrusively observing the behavior of patients on psychiatric hospital wards.

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C. asking normal people to admit themselves to mental hospitals by feigning symptoms.

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D. asking psychiatrists to describe the environment of a typical mental hospital.

Question 13 of 40 2.5 Points

A probability statement such as “given that event X occurred, then the probability of event Y occurring is high” is referred to as a(n):

 

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A. event notation.

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B. corollary.

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C. certainty statement.

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D. contingency.

Question 14 of 40 2.5 Points

One of the most important uses of a correlation is its potential use in:

 

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A. causal inferences.

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B. determining differences between groups.

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C. enhancing internal validity.

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D. the prediction of future events.

Question 15 of 40 2.5 Points

Low-constraint research enables us to obtain useful information about:

 

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A. techniques for manipulating variables.

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B. causality.

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C. relationships among variables.

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D. making and testing predictions.

Question 16 of 40 2.5 Points

An area of concern that is more problematic in laboratory research than in low-constraint field work in psychology is:

 

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A. scientific validity.

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B. generalizability of findings.

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C. that lab experiments are unethical.

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D. that most human behavior can only be evaluated in naturalistic environments.

Question 17 of 40 2.5 Points

Without experimentation:

 

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A. no conclusions can be drawn.

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B. strong causal conclusions can still be drawn.

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C. drawing strong conclusions is difficult.

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D. drawing strong conclusions is easy.

Question 18 of 40 2.5 Points

Asking participants in a survey a question such as, “What is your opinion of the way the economy is being handled by the president?” is an example of a(n) __________ question.

 

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A. open-ended

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B. multiple-choice

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C. Likert scale

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D. None of the above

Question 19 of 40 2.5 Points

In analyzing data in differential research, if we have score data and more than two groups, we would typically use a(n):

 

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A. Mann-Whitney U-Test.

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B. analysis of variance (ANOVA).

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C. chi-square test.

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D. correlated t-test.

Question 20 of 40 2.5 Points

A researcher wants to study the effects of attention on ability to perform a task. The participant’s attention is recorded by a research assistant that the participant knows is watching. A problem with this design is:

 

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A. measurement reactivity.

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B. participant observer bias.

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C. unobtrusive measurement.

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D. obtrusive participant measurement.

Question 21 of 40 2.5 Points

Testing effects are most pronounced in:

 

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A. measures of skill.

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B. elderly participants.

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C. young participants.

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D. nonverbal tests.

Question 22 of 40 2.5 Points

Which of the following characterizes experimental research?

 

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A. Seeking the strength and direction of relationships

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B. Hypothesis generating as the major aim

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C. High control and causal inferences

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D. The goal of observing contingent relationships

Question 23 of 40 2.5 Points

Multiple observers should be used in psychology when:

 

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A. observations are not completely subjective.

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B. there are questions about objectivity in making observations.

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C. it is thought that one observer is sufficient.

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D. the measure is unreliable.

Question 24 of 40 2.5 Points

Failure to rule out __________ variables results in threats to __________ validity.

 

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A. confounding; internal

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B. confounding; external

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C. dependent; internal

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D. dependent; external

Question 25 of 40 2.5 Points

A researcher wants to do a study of pretest anxiety. He devises two possible ways of measuring pretest anxiety: (1) attaching electrodes to the palm and measuring the amount of sweat produced; (2) having observers rate participants on how anxious they look. Which of the following is true?

 

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A. Both are subjective measures.

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B. Both are objective measures.

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C. #1 is objective; #2 is subjective.

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D. #1 is subjective; #2 is objective.

Question 26 of 40 2.5 Points

Matched random assignment is used in situations in which random assignment would:

 

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A. increase chances of unequal sample sizes.

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B. cause possible confounding because the groups may be unequal on key dimensions.

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C. not be possible because the researcher has too much prior knowledge about the participants.

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D. not be possible because the researcher has too little prior knowledge about the participants.

Question 27 of 40 2.5 Points

If the null hypothesis has been rejected, we should consider that:

 

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A. the causal hypothesis can be accepted.

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B. the causal hypothesis cannot be rejected.

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C. extraneous variables may have affected the study.

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D. extraneous variables do not affect the hypothesis.

Question 28 of 40 2.5 Points

If we wish to apply results of a study to a wider population, the type of validity that we would be concerned about would be __________ validity.

 

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A. statistical

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B. internal

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C. external

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D. construct

Question 29 of 40 2.5 Points

In a double-blind control procedure:

 

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A. the participants and researcher are blind to assignment of participants.

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B. the laboratory is not illuminated.

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C. the researcher and the research assistant(s) are blind to assignment to the experimental group.

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D. no one knows which participants are assigned to the experimental group.

Question 30 of 40 2.5 Points

Which confounding variable can ONLY occur in within-subjects studies?

 

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A. Regression to the mean

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B. Diffusion of treatment

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C. Sequence effects

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D. Testing

Question 31 of 40 2.5 Points

In order to generalize across different times, places, or conditions, a researcher must:

 

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A. sample across those times, places, or conditions.

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B. use a random sample of participants.

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C. use a large enough sample size.

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D. use powerful statistics.

Question 32 of 40 2.5 Points

When research participants give information to prospective participants about the procedures, the research could be affected by the confounding variable of:

 

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A. the bystander effect.

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B. diffusion of responsibility.

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C. diffusion of treatment.

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D. regression to the mean.

Question 33 of 40 2.5 Points

Since the data on gender differences in mathematical ability tend to support both a nature and a nurture hypothesis, the __________ validity of any one interpretation is in doubt.

 

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A. internal

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B. construct

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C. statistical

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D. external

Question 34 of 40 2.5 Points

Experimenter effects do NOT result from the experimenter’s knowledge of the:

 

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A. hypothesis being tested.

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B. assignment of individual participants to conditions of the experiment.

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C. nature of the experiment and control conditions.

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D. specific details of the independent variable.

Question 35 of 40 2.5 Points

After the statement of the problem has been clearly defined and the major variables identified, the next step in developing a research hypothesis is to:

 

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A. test the problem statement on research participants.

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B. operationally define the variables.

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C. analyze the data.

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D. interpret the results.

Question 36 of 40 2.5 Points

In research on the effects of noise on sleep, a researcher wonders whether disrupted sleep may be due to drinking coffee rather than to living near an airport. What type of hypothesis is this?

 

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A. A confounding variable hypothesis

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B. A null hypothesis

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C. A research hypothesis

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D. A moot hypothesis

Question 37 of 40 2.5 Points

Doyen & colleagues (2012) found that __________ effects were the reason that participants changed their walking speed.

 

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A. experimenter

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B. subject

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C. both subject and experimenter

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D. neither subject nor experimenter

Question 38 of 40 2.5 Points

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of a good research hypothesis?

 

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A. It is a declarative statement.

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B. It identifies at least two variables.

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C. It states a predicted relationship.

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D. It is in the form of a question.

Question 39 of 40 2.5 Points

The reduction of extraneous variables is typically an advantage of:

 

 

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A. natural environments.

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B. laboratory settings.

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C. lower-constraint laboratory settings only.

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D. non-laboratory settings.

Question 40 of 40 2.5 Points

Experimenter expectancies might be responsible for all of the following EXCEPT:

 

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A. directly influencing the participant’s behavior toward support of the hypothesis.

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B. selecting data that best support the hypothesis.

[removed]

C. minimizing demand characteristics.

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D. interpreting results in a biased manner.

 
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Psychological And Sociological Aspects Of Later Adulthood

Need by 01 March 2016 by 2300hrs EST

 

For this Assignment, you will write about Sandra Lombardino’s ecomap that you submitted in Unit 8. In your paper, you will summarize and evaluate the influences of the environment on Sandra’s behavior and family system.

 

Using the ecomap you created as a resource, discuss the following topics about Sandra and her family:

 

  1. Provide a one paragraph history about Sandra’s life to this point.
  2. Explain whether Sandra is in Integrity or Despair as defined by Erik Erikson in his Theory of Psychosocial Development. Explore how this transition crisis may be resolved by a HSP conducting a life review with Sandra.
  3. Using Sandra’s ecomap, describe what systems (influences) are causing the most stress and negative influence on Sandra’s behavior and decision making.
  4. Considering Stress Theory, what are some recommendations a HSP could make to Sandra to help her cope with her trauma/stress that may help her meet her goal of a long life expectancy?
  5. If you were working with Sandra and she provided consent to contact her family, do you believe that involving her adult children would make a positive impact to her family system? Explain why or why not.
  6. What role could Sandra’s adult children play in helping Sandra cope with her trauma/stress?
  7. Name one human services agency that serves older adults that may provide assistance to Sandra and her family. Explain how this agency would specifically help Sandra and her family with their current stressors.
  8. Considering all you have learned in HN144, what are some best practice approaches that a human service professional could use to help a multigenerational family experiencing a negative environment?

 

The paper should be 8 complete paragraphs, resulting in approximately 2–3 pages of text in addition to the cover page and the final reference page. It also should be free of spelling and grammatical errors and double-spaced, using a 12 point Times New Roman font.

 

It should include a cover page and a final reference page where sources are cited in the e-book course text and any other sources you choose to include in the paper. The only required source is the text. The assignment must be original work and plagiarism free.

 

Citing Sources

 

It is important to always attribute credit to the proper sources when relying on the text, articles, websites, or other sources. You must credit the work when you:

 

  • Summarize concepts and theories that you learned in the text, articles, or internet sources.
  • Use others’ ideas, theories, and concepts in constructing Discussion topic responses or completing Assignments.
  • Use direct quotes in the context of your paper (when quoting directly, you must use quotation marks).

 

You may use the following reference: Zastrow, Charles. Brooks/Cole Empowerment Series: Understanding Human Behavior and the Social Environment, 9th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2013. VitalSource Bookshelf Online.

 
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Unit II PowerPoint Presentation

Imagine that you are a practicing psychologist, and you are the featured presenter for the upcoming psychology conference. Your chosen topic centers upon factors that influence human behaviors and cognitions. In your presentation, you want to teach the audience about biological, evolutionary, and environmental factors that influence behaviors. To do this, you will need to prepare a PowerPoint to present to the audience. In your PowerPoint presentation, be sure to include the below concepts: Identify ways in which the environment can both nurture and thwart mental ability. Explain how nurture and nature play interactive roles in shaping behavior. Summarize the effects of some of the main neurotransmitters in the brain, and list four hormones that influence behavior. Your PowerPoint presentation must be at least eight slides in length, not including the cover slide and reference slide. In addition to your textbook, you must use a minimum of one scholarly source. Any information from an outside source that is used should be cited appropriately according to APA format. You may use the notes field in PowerPoint to expand on your ideas, if necessary, but this is not required. Your presentation style should appear professional, using appropriate formatting and graphics. If you have never created a PowerPoint, or if you want to brush up on your skills, watch this tutorial created by the CSU Writing Center to learn tips and best practices for creating a PowerPoint: http://columbiasouthern.adobeconnect.com/powerpointbestpractices/

 
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