AAMU Unit 6 Reading Quiz: Clev Chas 24-26 QUESTION 1 Although Iran sits on top of one of the world’s largest known oil reserves, its weak refining capacity means that it must import gasoline to meet its own domestic needs. True False 1 points QUESTION 2 As of 2011, the United States has shown moral, fiscal, and military support for all of the democratic uprisings in the Middle East. True False 1 points QUESTION 3 Four years after Ahmadinejad’s post-electoral challenge by the Green Movement, change has ensued in all of the following ways EXCEPT: Iran has entered into a nuclear agreement with China, Russia, the US, the UK, France, and Germany The reformist opposition celebrated the election of its own presidential candidate, Hassan Rouhani Iran’s relations with the West, in particular with the US, have begun to thaw to a degree unprecedented since prior to 1979 Iran’s relations with Saudi Arabia have improved to levels unseen since the 1990 Gulf War 1 points QUESTION 4 Groups like the Muslim Brotherhood made greater gains than secular opposition parties in the parliamentary election process because of their well-established regional networks and organized party structures. True False 1 points QUESTION 5 How did the 2009 Green Movement in Iran differ from previous reform movements in Iran’s contemporary history? Youths rallied behind individual leaders Youths were able to circumvent state communication restrictions and use social networks to mobilize antiregime demonstrations The older generations were at the heart of the opposition movement; they rallied for a return to the shah’s regime The 2009 movement was pro-Ahmadinejad, but anti-religious orders, particularly the supreme Islamist jurist 1 points QUESTION 6 How did the Council of Guardians ensure a majority of conservative Majlis members in the 2004 elections in Iran? The Council of Guardians funded many conservative candidates The Council of Guardians did not allow large swaths of the country-in particular, its more liberal big cities-to cast votes The Council of Guardians purged the selection of candidates by disqualifying more than 2,000 reformists The Council of Guardians canceled the elections due to terrorist threats and then filled the Majlis with their chosen candidates 1 points QUESTION 7 In Iran, the supreme Islamic jurist does not have the power to override decisions of the Council of Guardians. True False 1 points QUESTION 8 In Syria, as with many authoritarian regimes, what did the increased and ongoing repression indicate? It was a sign of desperation from an increasingly isolated regime that saw no alternative to imposing its rule It was a sign of military might and superiority It was an effort by the regime to hold the crumbling state together and not risk civil war It indicated the promise of protection the regime swore to its citizens in the face of the violent rebellious uprisings led by a minority group 1 points QUESTION 9 In Turkey, the True Path Party’s policies benefited the group that became known as “the have lots.” True False 1 points QUESTION 10 In which state did the national army show an immediate readiness to kill demonstrators? Egypt Tunisia Syria All of these are correct. 1 points QUESTION 11 Instead of the national military, to retain his power Qaddafi relied on the elite units comprised of tribal allies and led by members of his family. Why? The national military defected en masse Large swaths of national military members were killed by NATO attacks early in the uprising The national military had been kept weak to prevent any coup attempts The national military was already spread too thin, as Qaddafi had troops stationed in many neighboring countries 1 points QUESTION 12 Mahmoud Ahmadinejad won the 2009 presidential election by a landslide, amidst allegations of vote-rigging and fraud. True False 1 points QUESTION 13 Oil-rich Gulf monarchies sought to avoid Tunisian and Egyptian style protests with a strategy that combined ____________. military force and economic repression co-option and coercion leniency and liberalization military force and isolationism 1 points QUESTION 14 Regimes in the region had over the past several decades, increasingly become half gumhuriya and half malakiya, meaning half republic, half monarchy half democracy, half dictatorship half Islamist, half secular half legitimate, half illegitmate 1 points QUESTION 15 The 1,000 Lebanese deaths as a result of the 2006 Second Lebanon War were largely military personnel. True False 1 points QUESTION 16 The Shi’a majority of Bahrain posed a challenge to the Sunni ruling al-Khalifa family. Which two powers aided Bahrain in silencing this opposition movement? Iran and the United Arab Emirates Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates The United States and Saudi Arabia Qatar and Saudi Arabia 1 points QUESTION 17 The Syrian regime filled key positions in the state apparatus with various ethnic and religious minorities-this effort had long afforded the state some degree of legitimacy. True False 1 points QUESTION 18 The most credible opposition to failing Arab regimes came from Islamists, either as militant radical minorities or, increasingly, as moderate centrists who work within the system to reform society. True False 1 points QUESTION 19 Unlike the police force, the conscript army originally had some legitimacy as a force for national unity in Egypt. True False 1 points QUESTION 20 What about the AKP caused the military establishment and defeated politicians in Turkey the most concern? The party’s Islamic complexion Its rejection of established political parties Its leftist welfare policies Its leader Erdogan’s past policies towards the Kurds 1 points QUESTION 21 What caused the turn toward Islamist organizations in Turkey in the 1990s? Kemalism was widely rejected by the state and military apparatuses With party restrictions becoming more lax, the Turkish people sought to develop and fully experience their democratic state. Islamist organizations were only a small segment of the newly established parties, but they were the most vocal The assassinations of well-known religious leaders in neighboring countries made the Turkish population sympathetic to Islamist organizations The proliferation of parties reflected the failure of the mainstream political groupings to satisfy popular aspirations; people sought out, instead, more narrowly focused agendas, including religious ones 1 points QUESTION 22 What gives Turkish Kurds their sense of communal identity? The repressive nature of the Turkish state Their formation of political parties and local leadership Their military strength Their shared geographical space and distinct language 1 points QUESTION 23 What was key to Ahmadinejad’s ascendency to presidential victory in 2005? His promises to a restive population that he would cut living costs and more broadly distribute more of the nation’s oil wealth. His staunch anti-Israeli sentiment His non-religious background, having been Iran’s first noncleric president in 24 years His emphasis on expanding ties with Iraq amid the post-Saddam era 1 points QUESTION 24 What was the military’s response to the political gains of the Welfare Party and its Islamist character? The military, recognizing the strength and financial prowess of the party, joined its ranks The military recognized the Islamic character of the party and the threat it posed to the principle of secularism instilled in Turkish society by Ataturk, and in 1990, the High Council banned the party In 1997, only two years after the party gained power in the national assembly and one of its members became prime minister, the military-controlled High Command pressured the prime minister into resigning, then the following year banned the party and barred some of its members from political activity In an attempt to dismantle the party’s support, the military threw its weight behind its political opponent, the True Path Party 1 points QUESTION 25 Which Turkish political leader led an Islamist revival in the 1990s? Mustafa Kemal Necmettin Erbakan Sultan Abdul Hamid II Recep Tayyip Erdogan 1 points QUESTION 26 Which of the following Arab states did NOT experience a violent civil war during the revolutionary events of 2011? Syria Egypt Libya Yemen 1 points QUESTION 27 Which of the following actors in Lebanese politics emphasized Lebanon’s confrontation with external enemies? Hizbullah Maronite President Emile Lahoud Sunni PM Rafiq Hariri Both Hizbullah and President Emile Lahoud 1 points QUESTION 28 Which of the following best characterizes President Rafsanjani’s policies? Seeking to end Iran’s diplomatic isolation, he reestablished relations with Saudi Arabia and applied for an IMF loan Radical ulama were the greatest political challenge to the regime at this time Rafsanjani privatized parts of the economy that had been nationalized since the 1979 Revolution All of these are important aspects of President Rafsanjani’s policies 1 points QUESTION 29 Which of the following best characterizes Saudi state policy post-2011? Cautious in its actions at home and abroad due to falling oil prices and its shrinking state revenue Engaged in multiple proxy wars with an increasingly aggressive Iran More repressive than ever over its domestic population due in part to workers’ protests against poor working conditions Spending massive sums, both on appeasing its own population and to engage in aggressive foreign policy 1 points QUESTION 30 Which of the following best defines the Anatolian tigers? Massive government investment in development of central Turkey gave rise to these new entrepreneurs Peasants who revolted against the True Path Party’s economic policies Newly arrived urban working poor came to form this group that at times engaged in violence driven by socioeconomic alienation An environmental group focused on protecting the rapidly urbanizing central Turkish heartland 1 points QUESTION 31 Which of the following countries had been experiencing a youth bulge at the time of the uprisings? Saudi Arabia Egypt Syria All of these answers are correct 1 points QUESTION 32 Which of the following defines the Doha Agreement? A set of trade negotiations set in Doha, Qatar, that would have mixed effects on Lebanon’s economy and, ultimately, sectarian relations An effort led by Qatari prime minister that provided for the election of a new Maronite president but gave the Hizbullah-led opposition an effective veto over government policies A mutually beneficial political agreement between Hizbullah and President al-Asad of Syria A secret agreement between the Arab monarchies, the Lebanese Maronites, helping to ensure against Hizbullah’s presence in Lebanon and throughout the region 1 points QUESTION 33 Which of the following does NOT explain the longevity of the Syrian civil war? Massive oil resources Bashar al-Asad’s tight hold over his inner-circle Generous support to the regime from Iran, Russia, and Hizbullah The lack of unity among, as well as consistent external support for, the opposition groups 1 points QUESTION 34 Which of the following helped al-Sisi’s new regime in Egypt? The US, which refused to label it a coup, quickly resuming its military support to Egypt Billions of dollars of Gulf oil money from the Arab monarchies A coherent military apparatus in Egypt All of these helped in consolidating al-Sisi’s regime 1 points QUESTION 35 Which of the following is NOT a reason as to why Bashar al-Asad’s regime has remained so resilient? Disorganization among opposition groups, many of which fight one another Immense support from Russia, Iran, and Hizbullah Tight-knit coherence of the regime Loyalty among the Sunnis, who constitute the majority of Syria’s population 1 points QUESTION 36 Which of the following is NOT an accurate characterization of the Houthis? As Twelver Shi?a, these rebels sought to extend Iranian influence throughout the Gulf A local rebel movement of northern Yemen that led to the end of Saleh’s presidency in 2011 They allied with forces loyal to President Saleh to help oust President Mansour Hadi in 2015 They have been the target of a Saudi-led coalition beginning in March 2015 1 points QUESTION 37 Which of the following is NOT true about Lebanon’s March 14 forces? “March 14” gets its name from a massive demonstration in Lebanon, with people protesting Syria’s role in the assassination of Sunni prime minister Rafiq Hariri The March 14 coalition was made up of Sunnis, Druze, and some Christians The Shi’a community embraced the March 14 coalition The March 14 coalition was successful in pressuring Syria into withdrawing its troops from Lebanon 1 points QUESTION 38 Which of the following is NOT true of the Muslim Brotherhood in the 1970s? They were motivated by a social-and not strictly religious-agenda They sought to integrate general Islamic principles with responsible social reform They directly challenged the authority of the state By establishing much-needed charity institutions such as hospitals and welfare assistance, they gained legitimacy over the failings of the existing system 1 points QUESTION 39 Which of the following is NOT true regarding the Cedar revolution? It included Sunnis, Druze, and some Christians It culminated in the successful withdrawal of Syrian troops from Lebanon It forged an entirely new vision for Lebanon’s future It was sparked by people calling for an investigation into the assassination of Rafiq Hariri 1 points QUESTION 40 Which of the following is a country in which there was no change of regime in 2011? Yemen Bahrain Libya Egypt 1 points QUESTION 41 Which of the following is the most accurate description of the population in Lebanon by 2015? By 2015, one in five people in Lebanon was a Syrian refugee, half of which are children By 2015, one in ten people in Lebanon was a Syrian refugee, half of which are children By 2015, one in ten Lebanese Shi?a had fled the country to go to Iran, Iraq, and France By 2015, one in five Christians had fled the country to go to France 1 points QUESTION 42 Which of the following statements about the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) is true? It is a militant organization within the Kurdish nationalist movement It is the political wing of the Kurdish nationalist movement In Turkey, it is considered a separatist movement, but not a terrorist organization It was established in 1999 by Abdullah Öcalan 1 points QUESTION 43 Which of the following statements accurately describes the demonstrations at Gezi Park in 2013? They began with a peaceful sit-in to block a shopping arcade from being built on one of the city’s few remaining parks. Nationwide demonstrations followed in which a dozen people were killed and thousands were injured and arrested. The incident revealed Erdogan’s close ties to big business and his use of authoritarian policies to facilitate such ties All of these statements accurately describe the demonstrations at Gezi Park in 2013 1 points QUESTION 44 Which of the following statements is NOT true of Hizbullah? Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah is Hizbullah’s leader Hizbullah membership and support is predominantly Sunni Hizbullah operates as both a militant group and as one of Lebanon’s best-organized political parties The Israeli withdrawal from southern Lebanon in 2000 was considered a Hizbullah victory 1 points QUESTION 45 Which of the following was a reason the European Union questioned Turkey’s potential acceptance into the EU? Turkey’s human rights violations against the Kurds and use of the death penalty Turkey’s shaky democratic foundations Turkey’s weak economic development All of these answers are correct. 1 points QUESTION 46 Which of the following was not among the most significant variables in navigating successful political and economic transitions in the wake of 2011? Structure and composition of the army Historical presence of religious minorities, such as Jews and Christians Outside powers’ decisions whether or not to intervene on behalf of the revolutionaries or on behalf of the regime, or at all The process of writing new constitutions 1 points QUESTION 47 Who or what took formal executive power in Egypt on February 11, 2011 after the arrest of Husni Mubarak? United Nations Emergency Force Muhammad Morsi Omar Suleiman Supreme Council of Armed Forces 1 points QUESTION 48 Who was the twenty-six-year old Tunisian who lit himself on fire in protest of Tunisia’s economic stagnation, as well as the abuse, repression, and extortion of its citizens? Khaled Said Sidi Bouzid Mohammed Bouazizi Wael Ghonim 1 points QUESTION 49 Who were the Sinai militants? Originally stemming from marginalized Bedouin, a new generation of opponents to the Egyptian military that were ultimately driven towards allegiance to ISIS Islamist rivals to the Muslim Brotherhood who sought Morsi’s overthrow Hamas factions within Egypt, heartened by the Muslim Brotherhood’s rise to power Informal secular factions working on behalf of Mubarak’s family to keep the Muslim Brotherhood out of power 1 points QUESTION 50 Why is the date “January 25” relevant within the revolutionary activity of 2011? It was the day Tunisia saw President Ben Ali flee by plane for Saudi Arabia It was the first day of the Egyptian revolution; hundreds of thousands of Egyptians descended into Tahrir Square this day. It marked the end of the Egyptian revolution; Mubarak was successfully removed from power It was the day that marked Libya’s first free election ORDER THIS PAPER OR A SIMILAR ONE WITH PRO WRITING TUTORS AND GET AN AMAZING DISCOUNT"