AAMU Unit 5 Reading Quiz: Clev Chas 22-23; Dobbs 4-5 QUESTION 1 All of the following are true of the oil for food program in post-Gulf War Iraq EXCEPT: The funds lacked adequate international monitoring and restrictions, thus allowing Saddam Husayn to pilfer the majority of the money for his cronies and himself The program allowed Iraq to sell $2 billion worth of oil every six months for humanitarian supplies 30 percent of the funds were used to pay Iraq’s war reparations, with additional amounts allocated to UN operations in Iraq Some money was designated specifically for humanitarian supplies for Kurds in the north 1 points QUESTION 2 All of the following statements about the Oslo Peace Accords are true EXCEPT The Accords were an agreement in which Israel agreed to return East Jerusalem to Palestinian ownership The Accords were an agreement whereby Israeli troops were to withdraw from Gaza and the West Bank town of Jericho and the Palestinian authority would be established The Accords were an agreement in which Israel agreed to withdraw from Palestinian land beyond the 1967 borders of Israel It was a document of mutual recognition in which Israel recognized the PLO as the legitimate representative of the Palestinian people and, in return the PLO recognized Israel’s right to exist in peace and renounced the use of violence 1 points QUESTION 3 Although Iraq’s occupation of Kuwait was generally condemned throughout the Arab world, the US intervention was extremely unpopular. Why? The intervention revealed the United States’ double standard in the Middle East; Washington enforced UN resolutions against Iraq, but did not compel Israel to obey UN resolutions pertaining to the occupied territories The Arab world saw that the United States only sent material assistance; it would not stay and aid in rebuilding the region The Arab world believed the United States had wrongfully bought into Iraqi propaganda, and the conflict did not necessitate excessive military intervention The Arab world saw that, while it wanted to end the invasion of Kuwait, the United States wanted Saddam Husayn to remain in power 1 points QUESTION 4 How did President George H.W. Bush justify its change of policy from “Desert Shield” to “Desert Storm”? The Bush administration sought to keep the existing economic and political order in the Gulf because it ensured the continued supply of oil to the United States The Bush administration sought to deny Iraq the fruits of its aggression and personally punish Saddam Husayn The Bush administration emphasized a moral responsibility for liberating Kuwait All of these answers are correct 1 points QUESTION 5 How did the 1990-1991 Gulf War become linked with the Israeli-Palestinian conflict? Arabs noted the United States’ double standard: Washington pushed to enforce UN resolutions against Iraq, but not against Israel Kuwait had just signed a secret agreement with Israel Kuwait, unlike Iraq, refused to accept any Palestinian refugees Kuwait had just executed a number of terrorists with ties to Hamas 1 points QUESTION 6 Immediately after forming a government, Prime Minister Rabin complied with US demands and announced a complete freeze on Israeli settlement construction. True False 1 points QUESTION 7 In 1990, negotiations between North and South Yemen cumulated in the unification of the two states as the Republic of Yemen. True False 1 points QUESTION 8 In 1999, women won and retained full citizenship rights in Kuwait. True False 1 points QUESTION 9 In the years following the second intifada divisions between Hamas and al-Fatah have become manifest geographically, with Hamas in control of Gaza and al-Fatah much stronger in the West Bank. True False 1 points QUESTION 10 Iraq was the product of imperial map-making; it did not have any previous national identity. True False 1 points QUESTION 11 President George H.W. Bush was the first US president to make US financial aid to Israel contingent upon Israel’s willingness to curb its settlements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. True False 1 points QUESTION 12 President George H.W. Bush’s personalization of his dislike of Saddam Husayn during the 1990-91 Gulf War was most reminiscent of ___________________. the British Government’s feelings toward Egypt’s Muhammad Ali the British Prime Minister Eden’s fixation on Nasser during the Suez crisis Consul-General Lord Cromer’s animosity towards the Mahdi of Sudan Yitzhak Shamir’s distrust of Yasir Arafat during the same time 1 points QUESTION 13 Prime Minister Rabin was assassinated by a Hamas militant on November 4, 1995. True False 1 points QUESTION 14 The 1990 Gulf War was begun by the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and its annexation the Kuwaiti air assault on Iraq, and Iraq’s subsequent invasion the expulsion of 400,000 Palestinians from Kuwait into Iraq Kuwait providing assistance to Iraq Kurds and the subsequent Iraqi invasion 1 points QUESTION 15 The August 1990 invasion of Kuwait, according to Saddam Husayn, was justifiable because Kuwait was wrongfully overproducing oil and exceeding assigned OPEC quotas, consequently benefiting Western buyers Kuwait was wrongfully exploiting the Rumeila oil field, a petroleum deposit that straddled the border between Iraq and Kuwait Kuwait refused to cancel Iraq’s debts, which, Iraq claimed, were the direct result of Iraq’s efforts to protect the Gulf states during the Iran-Iraq War All of these answers are correct 1 points QUESTION 16 The Likud Party of Israel was adamantly opposed to relinquishing any portion of the Gaza Strip or West Bank, and in the 1980s the Likud-dominated government constructed more settlements in the territories and adopted measures to isolate and subjugate the Palestinian inhabitants. True False 1 points QUESTION 17 The Palestinian Intifada achieved its full objectives by 1991. True False 1 points QUESTION 18 The network of walls in the West Bank and the elaborate and expensive system of bypass roads that enabled Israelis to commute from West Bank settlements to major cities without having to come in contact with Arab inhabitants were an effort to modernize the roadways and most-used routes isolate and fragment Palestinian villages in order to disrupt established networks as well as absorb large tracts of Palestinian agricultural land disengage Israelis from Palestinians make it so difficult for the Palestinians to travel that they did not engage in seeking work in the cities where their access was limited 1 points QUESTION 19 To which country did the United States send over 200,000 troops in 1990, upon receiving a formal invitation to station troops there? Kuwait Saudi Arabia Lebanon Iraq 1 points QUESTION 20 What did Yasir Arafat promise to the Israeli representatives gathered for a ceremony on the White House lawn on September 13, 1993? The exercise of Palestinian sovereignty and the removal of Palestinian feelings of injustice would be the strongest guarantees of Israeli security Palestinians would not permit the peace process to be drawn out; immediate Israeli withdrawal from the occupied territories was mandatory Any further settlements would be seen as a violation of the agreement and an invitation for war Hamas-not the PLO-would constitute the leadership of the Palestinians 1 points QUESTION 21 What is NOT true of the 1992 elections in Israel? The necessity of absorbing the financial burden of a new wave of Jewish immigration from the former Soviet Union played a large role in the election The election brought back to office Yitzhak Rabin, the first Israeli prime minister born in Palestine Shamir was the Labor Party candidate Israelis rejected Prime Minister Shamir’s ideological hard line and gave an overwhelming victory to Yitzhak Rabin 1 points QUESTION 22 What means did President George H.W. Bush use to push Israel to curb its settlements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip? Negotiation. The United States and Israel came to an agreement regarding the settlement program Financial leverage; The United States withheld loan guarantees to Israel in an attempt to freeze the settlement program Military influence; The United States threatened to lessen military assistance to Israel Goods embargo. The United States refused to trade with Israel until an agreement was met 1 points QUESTION 23 What was evident in Ehud Barak’s victory over Benjamin Netanyahu in the 1999 election for Prime Minister? Ehud Barak was the more conservative of the two candidates, and voters felt Netanyahu was growing soft Ehud Barak handily won the vote of the religious right and ultra-Orthodox crowd; these groups were gaining traction in Israeli politics Israelis had become disenchanted with Netanyahu’s political machinations, divisiveness, and his failure to pursue a true peace agreement with the Palestinians Both that Barak was more conservative and the voters felt Netanyahu was growing soft, and because the up and coming religious right and the ultra-Orthodox crowd went for Barak 1 points QUESTION 24 What was the Netanyahu government’s policy on settlements? Netanyahu’s government promoted settlement activities in the occupied territories Netanyahu’s government continued the partial freezing of settlement activities initiated by Prime Minister Rabin Netanyahu’s government implemented a complete freeze on settlement activities in an attempt to shore up relations with the United States None of these answers are correct 1 points QUESTION 25 Which of the following accurately characterizes the challenges to Saudi rulers in the 1990s? Islamists outside of the official ulama circles presented their demands more forcefully, and emphasized in particular Saudi ties to the West A liberal reformist group of businessmen and writers signed a petition in late 1990 requesting the establishment of a consultative council Islamists presented similar demands to those of the secular reformers, but they framed their demands in terms of the need to observe the shari’ah and to grant the ulama a greater role in the decision-making process All of these statements accurately characterize the challenges to Saudi rulers in the 1990s 1 points QUESTION 26 Which of the following best characterizes the origins of Hamas’s popularity? Hamas grew in popularity because it was firmly rooted in the shared hardships and poverty that Palestinians had experienced under Israeli occupation and it was more directly involved in grassroots social welfare activities than the Palestinian Authority Hamas became popular because Palestinians disliked how friendly Yasir Arafat was with foreign leaders, and they thought the Hamas were more humble Hamas grew in popularity because it had closer ties to Israel, and thus more clout in negotiating a peace settlement with Israel Hamas began in the Palestinian territories and spread throughout the Arab world, including into Tunisia, as it attempted to obliterate non-Muslim populations throughout the region 1 points QUESTION 27 Which of the following does NOT accurately characterize Oslo II? The clauses and maps of Oslo II made it impossible to sustain the pretense that the PLO had done anything other than negotiate from a position of weakness Oslo II can be identified as a key factor in solidifying opposition to the peace process Oslo II divided the West Bank into three zones and specified a phased redeployment of the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) from each zone. Oslo II helped to further the voices of Palestinians who demanded change through peaceful means 1 points QUESTION 28 Which of the following groups was Netanyahu torn between satisfying during the Wye Accords? The US and Israeli moderates the US and Israeli moderates on one side and the ultra-religious right of Israel on the other Hamas and the Israeli moderates Hamas and the ultra-religious right of Israel 1 points QUESTION 29 Which of the following is NOT a reason why Palestinians became alienated from the peace accords? The selection of PLO outsiders rather than local Palestinian elites to the PA The deteriorating economic conditions, in part due to corruption in Arafat’s inner circle Arafat’s authoritarian tendencies as he ignored the Palestinian Council set up in 1996 The secular ideology espoused by the PLO 1 points QUESTION 30 Which of the following is NOT an accurate description of the 1992 Saudi Basic Law of Government? It responded to the women’s driving protest by expanding certain job opportunities for women in government The law introduced sweeping changes in the process by which the king was chosen It made it possible for younger, foreign educated princes to succeed the king The centrality of the House of Sa?ud and succession of the royal lineage through male descendants was all reaffirmed 1 points QUESTION 31 Which of the following is NOT true about the 1987 Intifada? It was an effort by the Palestinian inhabitants of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to bring an end to the Israeli occupation It was an effort to establish an independent Palestinian state The PLO was in charge from the beginning It was, in part, an effort to make the continued occupation a financial burden for Israel 1 points QUESTION 32 Which of the following is NOT true of Hamas? It favored the two-state solution between Israel and Palestine It framed its call to action in Islamic terms It came into existence in 1988 as an offshoot from the Gaza branch of the Muslim Brotherhood “Hamas” is an Arabic acronym for “Islamic Resistance Movement” 1 points QUESTION 33 Which of the following is NOT true of Prime Minister Sharon’s policy of “disengagement”? The policy required the removal of all settlers from the Gaza Strip and from four settlements in the West Bank To Sharon, the policy held the promise of eclipsing the international road map and putting the idea of a two-state solution on the back burner It had the complete support of Sharon’s own Likud Party President George W. Bush endorsed Sharon’s policy 1 points QUESTION 34 Which of the following is accurate regarding the use of the phrase “mowing the lawn” in Gaza? It is prosaically used to refer to the Israeli military operations launched against Gaza every few years, involving an overwhelming use of force to combat Hamas rockets This phrase is used in the context of Israelis being increasingly disillusioned with the conflict with Palestinians, instead focusing greater attention on their own separate economic concerns It is used within the context of Netanyahu’s leadership choosing to manage rather than resolve the conflict with Palestine All of these are accurate regarding the use of the phrase “mowing the lawn” in Gaza 1 points QUESTION 35 Which of the following is true of the intifada? It began as an Islamist youth movement in Gaza in response to the Israeli military accidentally killing Palestinian civilians It began as a unified movement across all strata of Palestinian society From the beginning, it was a top-down effort of the PLO to demand a two-state solution for the Palestinians It began in Gaza with youths protesting the deaths of fellow Palestinians in a road accident with the Israeli military, later broadening to the rest of Palestine 1 points QUESTION 36 Which of the following most accurately characterizes the tactics supported by the intifada leaders of the UNL to achieve their goals at the outset of the intifada? The UNL supported whatever tactics deemed necessary against the Israelis to achieve the goal of Palestinian statehood The UNL confined their tactics to negotiations by PLO leaders, with limited direct action among society The intifada leaders employed tactics of boycotts and civil disobedience designed to make the continued occupation a financial burden for Israel The intifada leaders supported terrorist tactics against Israelis and Palestinians deemed sympathetic to the Israelis 1 points QUESTION 37 Which of the following most accurately defines the Israeli intensification of its blockade of Gaza in 2007? Israel sought to weaken Hamas’s credibility as the government of Gaza through exacerbating conditions of poverty in Gaza Israel sought to discredit the newly elected unity government of al-Fatah and Hamas Israel was trying to quash the second intifada, which threatened Israel’s very existence Israel was trying to protect civilians-both Israeli citizens and Palestinian-in Gaza 1 points QUESTION 38 Which of the following most accurately describes the rebellions within Iraq in 1991? Kurds in the north rebelled against Saddam Husayn’s use of chemical weapons in the city of Halabja that had killed 5,000 people Iraqis throughout the entire country rebelled against Saddam Husayn’s high military spending as the Ba?thist welfare state’s capabilities dwindled Shi?a soldiers in the south who felt they had been abandoned by the regime during Operation Desert Storm rebelled against Saddam Husayn and the Ba?th party Shi?a with longstanding resentments against Arab Ba?thism rebelled with the support of the United States 1 points QUESTION 39 Which of the following most significantly factored into US President George H.W. Bush’s decision to cut off negotiations with Arafat and the PLO? Israel’s supporters within the US and exerted substantial pressure on President Bush to do so A splinter group of the PLO carried out a raid against Israel during negotiations, thus calling into question Arafat’s renunciation of terrorism Israeli Prime Minister Shamir refused to concede any of the occupied territories to the PLO, thus leaving negotiations unfruitful All of these were significant factors in the US ending negotiations with the PLO under the administration of George H.W. Bush 1 points QUESTION 40 Which of the following was NOT true of the Gulf War of 1991? The major Arab countries sided with the United States against their fellow Arab country, Iraq The United States secretly encouraged Iraq to invade Kuwait in order to have a pretext to destroy Saddam Husayn and his weapons of mass destruction The United States was primarily concerned about access to oil Most of the 400,000 Palestinians living in Kuwait fled or were expelled as a result of the war 1 points QUESTION 41 Which two leaders famously shook hands on the White House lawn in the US in September 1993? Jimmy Carter and Anwar Sadat Yasir Arafat and Yitzhak Shamir Bill Clinton and Yasir Arafat Yitzhak Rabin and Yasir Arafat 1 points QUESTION 42 Who did Arafat appoint to the top posts within the Palestinian Authority (PA)? Local Palestinian elites who had lived through the intifada and were sensitive to the needs and aspirations of the Palestinian people Arafat’s own loyal associates and fellow exiled politicians A mixture of the local Palestinian elites and foreign experts Local Palestinian elites and a small minority of former Israeli Labor party liaisons 1 points QUESTION 43 Who was the prime minister of Israel during the 1980s, who intensified the construction of settlements and adopted new measures designed to isolate and subjugate the Palestinian inhabitants? Yitzhak Rabin Menachem Begin Ariel Sharon Yitzhak Shamir 1 points QUESTION 44 Why did the Oslo peace process fail? Because Palestinians continued to carry out suicide bombings and the PLO was unable to stop Palestinian violence Because Israeli settlers continued to move into the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and Palestinian land continued to be expropriated for exclusive Israeli use Because the Palestinians believed the refugees of 1948 should have the right to return to their homes and Israelis did not All of these answers are correct 1 points QUESTION 45 What was an agreement between Israel and Syria allowing Syria to enter Lebanon in order to end the civil war. Cairo Agreement Red Line Agreement Oslo Accords May 17 Agreement 1 points QUESTION 46 Who succeeded Musa Sadr as the leader of Amal in Lebanon and serves as Speaker of the Lebanese Parliament. Hassan Nasrallah Saad Hadaad Abu Nidal Nabih Berri 1 points QUESTION 47 The Iron Fist Policy was the Israeli policy to crush resistance in South Lebanon the Israeli policy to crush resistance in the West Bank the Israeli policy to crush resistance in the Gaza Strip None of the Above 1 points QUESTION 48 Who is the current General Secretary of Hizb’allah? Ragib Harb Nabih Berri Gamal al-Nasser Hassan Nasrallah 1 points QUESTION 49 Over 100 Leanese civilians were killed by Israeli shells at a Fijian UN base in Q’ana Lebanon. True False 1 points QUESTION 50 Hizb’allah led the Lebanese resistance to Israeli occupation, successfully driving them from most of South Lebanon in May of 2000. True False ORDER THIS PAPER OR A SIMILAR ONE WITH PRO WRITING TUTORS AND GET AN AMAZING DISCOUNT"